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[Article] O V E R D A R K

So I'm looking through my old yearbooks, and I'm realizing that I missed out on a crucial part of my life: during high school, I was supposed to have a punk phase. I can't believe I missed it! It seemed like everyone was rocking their unruly hair, their unkempt clothes, and their general disaffection towards life. Man, Green Day released new records, and there was an unrelenting hatred for all types of authority figures...
Wait, this is just a slab of concrete with newspaper articles from 2020 stapled to it, isn't it.
Regardless, the universe is telling me it's time for me to reclaim my lost childhood experiences; to go back to a better time. Unfortunately, latent legal issues surrounding my controversial "BONG HiTS 4 JESUS" sign prevent me from going within 500 feet of any type of school, so winning the basketball championship and visiting the aquarium are right out. But I can still be the moodiest, edgiest, darkest person on the planet, and now that I've beaten Shadow the Hedgehog all the way through and went to Hot Topic, it's time to build a commander deck that's truly me. Presenting: RAMSES O V E R D A R K!
[[Ramses Overdark]] {2}{U}{U}{B}{B} Legendary Creature — Human Assassin {T}: Destroy target enchanted creature. 4/3 
Ramses is the bad boy your mother would never let take you to IHOP. Not that he'd care; his business is killing, and he's efficient at it too, costing the least out of any commander I've ever written about. You want to sit around and drink tea with your little enchanted princess friends? Ramses Overdark is here to tell you how the real world works. Nothing personnel, kid.

Commander For You

Like a TI-83 Silver Edition, Ramses is a stone-cold calculating problem solver, but he only gets that way with some preparation. See, killing is a business, Ramses' business, and the one thing every business needs is synergy. So call me Nathan Fielder, because I'm going to unveil the plan that will keep this enterprise running smoothly:

Half Up-Front

As a teenager, I procrastinated from my task of being edgy by protesting government-backed financial institutions with the Bitcoin community, and one thing you learn there very quickly is that assassination ain't cheap.
The first and most obvious barrier to breaking 18 U.S. Code § 1117 is his six mana casting cost, and unlike Gabriel, Ramses demands something a little more tangible than a green thumb to appease him. We're going to use the usual fare: rings, trinkets, stones, lockets, relics... archives... spheres? With you as an investor, Ramses' business (which is killing) will make a killing, letting us take full advantage of Revel in Riches as both a ramp tool and backup win condition.
Ramses will also often require additional gas to keep going, whether it be finding a steady stream of enchantments to throw onto enemies, or to finding ways to close out games.

Murder, Inc.

Enchantment payoffs are few and far between in Dimir, so we're keeping this build a bit creature-light; but the ones we take with are absolutely vital for our success. While Ramses is no Cleopatra, he's still managed to form relationships with some important Greek allies:

Poaching Employees

Our deck only runs sixteen creatures, and while being a lone-wolf is edgy, it's not the type of edge I want to be. I feel like I'm a Halloween bobbing apple -- razor edgy; the type of edge that speaks to people, in the very depths of their soul, and causes them to rebel against the man. In the end, I will be so edgy that even those rotten adults will realize I'm right.
Enchant opposing creatures with reanimation-on-death enchantments:
Once opposing creatures are enchanted with one of these Auras, they become juicy targets for Ramses, as killing them will put them into play under your control. Unfortunately, six isn't a critical mass for Ramses; to ensure that Ramses' business isn't killed by a lack of clientele, let's use some recursive enchantments.
Rounding out the auras, we've got a few utility spells we can play for neat effects:
A lot of creatures are going to end up dead, which makes Rise of the Dark Realms a great end-game finisher. But that's boring. Are you ready to learn Ramses' true dark secret? Because here's where I blow your mind.

Drake in the 99 Non-Dragons

Your real win condition is some random uncommon from Urza's Saga.
That makes no sense.
It makes total sense. You start by playing Iridescent Drake, so...
This combo will make you feel like Joker, because your opponents will never see it coming.
You've got some redundancy in the deck in case things don't pan out: use Fallen Ideal as your sacrifice outlet and win condition to swing with an evasive infinity/infinity attacker, or deal damage using Grim Guardian's Constellation trigger. Should Iridescent Drake be interacted with (which is illegal, by the way), use Ill Gotten Gains to get your combo pieces back to hand and recur some protective counterspells.
I'm not a punk, I'm a goddamn dragon genius. Finally, the deck is truly me!

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Ramses Overdark deck for the Commander format is a fun and powerful budget deck for you to try. I hope you enjoyed reading my paper as much as I enjoyed writing-
...Buh?
Oh. I guess I reverted to hastily written high school paper writing. Is that really what I sounded like?
You know, people say you never really realize what you have until it's gone. It's easy to look to memories of better days and feel that melancholy drop in your stomach. It's natural to feel wistful for a time past when rain drips down the window. But the truth is also that you don't really realize what you don't have until you obtain it. Our experiences may be painful now, but that's no reason to give up hope. You can get over darkness. Look forward instead of back, because in that future lies a wiser you.

The Hit-List

https://scryfall.com/@michael_celani/decks/1985f0a7-552f-4b9d-a5cc-9593e5f0da04
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Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake

Scaling Reddit Community Points with Arbitrum Rollup: a piece of cake
https://preview.redd.it/b80c05tnb9e51.jpg?width=2550&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=850282c1a3962466ed44f73886dae1c8872d0f31
Submitted for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off
Baked by the pastry chefs at Offchain Labs
Please send questions or comments to [[email protected] ](mailto:[email protected])
1. Overview
We're excited to submit Arbitrum Rollup for consideration to The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off. Arbitrum Rollup is the only Ethereum scaling solution that supports arbitrary smart contracts without compromising on Ethereum's security or adding points of centralization. For Reddit, this means that Arbitrum can not only scale the minting and transfer of Community Points, but it can foster a creative ecosystem built around Reddit Community Points enabling points to be used in a wide variety of third party applications. That's right -- you can have your cake and eat it too!
Arbitrum Rollup isn't just Ethereum-style. Its Layer 2 transactions are byte-for-byte identical to Ethereum, which means Ethereum users can continue to use their existing addresses and wallets, and Ethereum developers can continue to use their favorite toolchains and development environments out-of-the-box with Arbitrum. Coupling Arbitrum’s tooling-compatibility with its trustless asset interoperability, Reddit not only can scale but can onboard the entire Ethereum community at no cost by giving them the same experience they already know and love (well, certainly know).
To benchmark how Arbitrum can scale Reddit Community Points, we launched the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain. Since Arbitrum provides full Solidity support, we didn't have to rewrite the Reddit contracts or try to mimic their functionality using an unfamiliar paradigm. Nope, none of that. We launched the Reddit contracts unmodified on Arbitrum Rollup complete with support for minting and distributing points. Like every Arbitrum Rollup chain, the chain included a bridge interface in which users can transfer Community Points or any other asset between the L1 and L2 chains. Arbitrum Rollup chains also support dynamic contract loading, which would allow third-party developers to launch custom ecosystem apps that integrate with Community Points on the very same chain that runs the Reddit contracts.
1.1 Why Ethereum
Perhaps the most exciting benefit of distributing Community Points using a blockchain is the ability to seamlessly port points to other applications and use them in a wide variety of contexts. Applications may include simple transfers such as a restaurant that allows Redditors to spend points on drinks. Or it may include complex smart contracts -- such as placing Community Points as a wager for a multiparty game or as collateral in a financial contract.
The common denominator between all of the fun uses of Reddit points is that it needs a thriving ecosystem of both users and developers, and the Ethereum blockchain is perhaps the only smart contract platform with significant adoption today. While many Layer 1 blockchains boast lower cost or higher throughput than the Ethereum blockchain, more often than not, these attributes mask the reality of little usage, weaker security, or both.
Perhaps another platform with significant usage will rise in the future. But today, Ethereum captures the mindshare of the blockchain community, and for Community Points to provide the most utility, the Ethereum blockchain is the natural choice.
1.2 Why Arbitrum
While Ethereum's ecosystem is unmatched, the reality is that fees are high and capacity is too low to support the scale of Reddit Community Points. Enter Arbitrum. Arbitrum Rollup provides all of the ecosystem benefits of Ethereum, but with orders of magnitude more capacity and at a fraction of the cost of native Ethereum smart contracts. And most of all, we don't change the experience from users. They continue to use the same wallets, addresses, languages, and tools.
Arbitrum Rollup is not the only solution that can scale payments, but it is the only developed solution that can scale both payments and arbitrary smart contracts trustlessly, which means that third party users can build highly scalable add-on apps that can be used without withdrawing money from the Rollup chain. If you believe that Reddit users will want to use their Community Points in smart contracts--and we believe they will--then it makes the most sense to choose a single scaling solution that can support the entire ecosystem, eliminating friction for users.
We view being able to run smart contracts in the same scaling solution as fundamentally critical since if there's significant demand in running smart contracts from Reddit's ecosystem, this would be a load on Ethereum and would itself require a scaling solution. Moreover, having different scaling solutions for the minting/distribution/spending of points and for third party apps would be burdensome for users as they'd have to constantly shuffle their Points back and forth.
2. Arbitrum at a glance
Arbitrum Rollup has a unique value proposition as it offers a combination of features that no other scaling solution achieves. Here we highlight its core attributes.
Decentralized. Arbitrum Rollup is as decentralized as Ethereum. Unlike some other Layer 2 scaling projects, Arbitrum Rollup doesn't have any centralized components or centralized operators who can censor users or delay transactions. Even in non-custodial systems, centralized components provide a risk as the operators are generally incentivized to increase their profit by extracting rent from users often in ways that severely degrade user experience. Even if centralized operators are altruistic, centralized components are subject to hacking, coercion, and potential liability.
Massive Scaling. Arbitrum achieves order of magnitude scaling over Ethereum's L1 smart contracts. Our software currently supports 453 transactions-per-second for basic transactions (at 1616 Ethereum gas per tx). We have a lot of room left to optimize (e.g. aggregating signatures), and over the next several months capacity will increase significantly. As described in detail below, Arbitrum can easily support and surpass Reddit's anticipated initial load, and its capacity will continue to improve as Reddit's capacity needs grow.
Low cost. The cost of running Arbitrum Rollup is quite low compared to L1 Ethereum and other scaling solutions such as those based on zero-knowledge proofs. Layer 2 fees are low, fixed, and predictable and should not be overly burdensome for Reddit to cover. Nobody needs to use special equipment or high-end machines. Arbitrum requires validators, which is a permissionless role that can be run on any reasonable on-line machine. Although anybody can act as a validator, in order to protect against a “tragedy of the commons” and make sure reputable validators are participating, we support a notion of “invited validators” that are compensated for their costs. In general, users pay (low) fees to cover the invited validators’ costs, but we imagine that Reddit may cover this cost for its users. See more on the costs and validator options below.
Ethereum Developer Experience. Not only does Arbitrum support EVM smart contracts, but the developer experience is identical to that of L1 Ethereum contracts and fully compatible with Ethereum tooling. Developers can port existing Solidity apps or write new ones using their favorite and familiar toolchains (e.g. Truffle, Buidler). There are no new languages or coding paradigms to learn.
Ethereum wallet compatibility. Just as in Ethereum, Arbitrum users need only hold keys, but do not have to store any coin history or additional data to protect or access their funds. Since Arbitrum transactions are semantically identical to Ethereum L1 transactions, existing Ethereum users can use their existing Ethereum keys with their existing wallet software such as Metamask.
Token interoperability. Users can easily transfer their ETH, ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens between Ethereum and the Arbitrum Rollup chain. As we explain in detail below, it is possible to mint tokens in L2 that can subsequently be withdrawn and recognized by the L1 token contract.
Fast finality. Transactions complete with the same finality time as Ethereum L1 (and it's possible to get faster finality guarantees by trading away trust assumptions; see the Arbitrum Rollup whitepaper for details).
Non-custodial. Arbitrum Rollup is a non-custodial scaling solution, so users control their funds/points and neither Reddit nor anyone else can ever access or revoke points held by users.
Censorship Resistant. Since it's completely decentralized, and the Arbitrum protocol guarantees progress trustlessly, Arbitrum Rollup is just as censorship-proof as Ethereum.
Block explorer. The Arbitrum Rollup block explorer allows users to view and analyze transactions on the Rollup chain.
Limitations
Although this is a bake-off, we're not going to sugar coat anything. Arbitrum Rollup, like any Optimistic Rollup protocol, does have one limitation, and that's the delay on withdrawals.
As for the concrete length of the delay, we've done a good deal of internal modeling and have blogged about this as well. Our current modeling suggests a 3-hour delay is sufficient (but as discussed in the linked post there is a tradeoff space between the length of the challenge period and the size of the validators’ deposit).
Note that this doesn't mean that the chain is delayed for three hours. Arbitrum Rollup supports pipelining of execution, which means that validators can keep building new states even while previous ones are “in the pipeline” for confirmation. As the challenge delays expire for each update, a new state will be confirmed (read more about this here).
So activity and progress on the chain are not delayed by the challenge period. The only thing that's delayed is the consummation of withdrawals. Recall though that any single honest validator knows immediately (at the speed of L1 finality) which state updates are correct and can guarantee that they will eventually be confirmed, so once a valid withdrawal has been requested on-chain, every honest party knows that the withdrawal will definitely happen. There's a natural place here for a liquidity market in which a validator (or someone who trusts a validator) can provide withdrawal loans for a small interest fee. This is a no-risk business for them as they know which withdrawals will be confirmed (and can force their confirmation trustlessly no matter what anyone else does) but are just waiting for on-chain finality.
3. The recipe: How Arbitrum Rollup works
For a description of the technical components of Arbitrum Rollup and how they interact to create a highly scalable protocol with a developer experience that is identical to Ethereum, please refer to the following documents:
Arbitrum Rollup Whitepaper
Arbitrum academic paper (describes a previous version of Arbitrum)
4. Developer docs and APIs
For full details about how to set up and interact with an Arbitrum Rollup chain or validator, please refer to our developer docs, which can be found at https://developer.offchainlabs.com/.
Note that the Arbitrum version described on that site is older and will soon be replaced by the version we are entering in Reddit Bake-Off, which is still undergoing internal testing before public release.
5. Who are the validators?
As with any Layer 2 protocol, advancing the protocol correctly requires at least one validator (sometimes called block producers) that is honest and available. A natural question is: who are the validators?
Recall that the validator set for an Arbitrum chain is open and permissionless; anyone can start or stop validating at will. (A useful analogy is to full nodes on an L1 chain.) But we understand that even though anyone can participate, Reddit may want to guarantee that highly reputable nodes are validating their chain. Reddit may choose to validate the chain themselves and/or hire third-party validators.To this end, we have begun building a marketplace for validator-for-hire services so that dapp developers can outsource validation services to reputable nodes with high up-time. We've announced a partnership in which Chainlink nodes will provide Arbitrum validation services, and we expect to announce more partnerships shortly with other blockchain infrastructure providers.
Although there is no requirement that validators are paid, Arbitrum’s economic model tracks validators’ costs (e.g. amount of computation and storage) and can charge small fees on user transactions, using a gas-type system, to cover those costs. Alternatively, a single party such as Reddit can agree to cover the costs of invited validators.
6. Reddit Contract Support
Since Arbitrum contracts and transactions are byte-for-byte compatible with Ethereum, supporting the Reddit contracts is as simple as launching them on an Arbitrum chain.
Minting. Arbitrum Rollup supports hybrid L1/L2 tokens which can be minted in L2 and then withdrawn onto the L1. An L1 contract at address A can make a special call to the EthBridge which deploys a "buddy contract" to the same address A on an Arbitrum chain. Since it's deployed at the same address, users can know that the L2 contract is the authorized "buddy" of the L1 contract on the Arbitrum chain.
For minting, the L1 contract is a standard ERC-20 contract which mints and burns tokens when requested by the L2 contract. It is paired with an ERC-20 contract in L2 which mints tokens based on whatever programmer provided minting facility is desired and burns tokens when they are withdrawn from the rollup chain. Given this base infrastructure, Arbitrum can support any smart contract based method for minting tokens in L2, and indeed we directly support Reddit's signature/claim based minting in L2.
Batch minting. What's better than a mint cookie? A whole batch! In addition to supporting Reddit’s current minting/claiming scheme, we built a second minting design, which we believe outperforms the signature/claim system in many scenarios.
In the current system, Reddit periodically issues signed statements to users, who then take those statements to the blockchain to claim their tokens. An alternative approach would have Reddit directly submit the list of users/amounts to the blockchain and distribute the tokens to the users without the signature/claim process.
To optimize the cost efficiency of this approach, we designed an application-specific compression scheme to minimize the size of the batch distribution list. We analyzed the data from Reddit's previous distributions and found that the data is highly compressible since token amounts are small and repeated, and addresses appear multiple times. Our function groups transactions by size, and replaces previously-seen addresses with a shorter index value. We wrote client code to compress the data, wrote a Solidity decompressing function, and integrated that function into Reddit’s contract running on Arbitrum.
When we ran the compression function on the previous Reddit distribution data, we found that we could compress batched minting data down to to 11.8 bytes per minting event (averaged over a 6-month trace of Reddit’s historical token grants)compared with roughly 174 bytes of on-chain data needed for the signature claim approach to minting (roughly 43 for an RLP-encoded null transaction + 65 for Reddit's signature + 65 for the user's signature + roughly 8 for the number of Points) .
The relative benefit of the two approaches with respect to on-chain call data cost depends on the percentage of users that will actually claim their tokens on chain. With the above figures, batch minting will be cheaper if roughly 5% of users redeem their claims. We stress that our compression scheme is not Arbitrum-specific and would be beneficial in any general-purpose smart contract platform.
8. Benchmarks and costs
In this section, we give the full costs of operating the Reddit contracts on an Arbitrum Rollup chain including the L1 gas costs for the Rollup chain, the costs of computation and storage for the L2 validators as well as the capital lockup requirements for staking.
Arbitrum Rollup is still on testnet, so we did not run mainnet benchmarks. Instead, we measured the L1 gas cost and L2 workload for Reddit operations on Arbitrum and calculated the total cost assuming current Ethereum gas prices. As noted below in detail, our measurements do not assume that Arbitrum is consuming the entire capacity of Ethereum. We will present the details of our model now, but for full transparency you can also play around with it yourself and adjust the parameters, by copying the spreadsheet found here.
Our cost model is based on measurements of Reddit’s contracts, running unmodified (except for the addition of a batch minting function) on Arbitrum Rollup on top of Ethereum.
On the distribution of transactions and frequency of assertions. Reddit's instructions specify the following minimum parameters that submissions should support:
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
  • 100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points)
  • 25,000 subscriptions
  • 75,000 one-off points burning
  • 100,000 transfers
We provide the full costs of operating an Arbitrum Rollup chain with this usage under the assumption that tokens are minted or granted to users in batches, but other transactions are uniformly distributed over the 5 day period. Unlike some other submissions, we do not make unrealistic assumptions that all operations can be submitted in enormous batches. We assume that batch minting is done in batches that use only a few percent on an L1 block’s gas, and that other operations come in evenly over time and are submitted in batches, with one batch every five minutes to keep latency reasonable. (Users are probably already waiting for L1 finality, which takes at least that long to achieve.)
We note that assuming that there are only 300,000 transactions that arrive uniformly over the 5 day period will make our benchmark numbers lower, but we believe that this will reflect the true cost of running the system. To see why, say that batches are submitted every five minutes (20 L1 blocks) and there's a fixed overhead of c bytes of calldata per batch, the cost of which will get amortized over all transactions executed in that batch. Assume that each individual transaction adds a marginal cost of t. Lastly assume the capacity of the scaling system is high enough that it can support all of Reddit's 300,000 transactions within a single 20-block batch (i.e. that there is more than c + 300,000*t byes of calldata available in 20 blocks).
Consider what happens if c, the per-batch overhead, is large (which it is in some systems, but not in Arbitrum). In the scenario that transactions actually arrive at the system's capacity and each batch is full, then c gets amortized over 300,000 transactions. But if we assume that the system is not running at capacity--and only receives 300,000 transactions arriving uniformly over 5 days-- then each 20-block assertion will contain about 200 transactions, and thus each transaction will pay a nontrivial cost due to c.
We are aware that other proposals presented scaling numbers assuming that 300,000 transactions arrived at maximum capacity and was executed in a single mega-transaction, but according to our estimates, for at least one such report, this led to a reported gas price that was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than it would have been assuming uniform arrival. We make more realistic batching assumptions, and we believe Arbitrum compares well when batch sizes are realistic.
Our model. Our cost model includes several sources of cost:
  • L1 gas costs: This is the cost of posting transactions as calldata on the L1 chain, as well as the overhead associated with each batch of transactions, and the L1 cost of settling transactions in the Arbitrum protocol.
  • Validator’s staking costs: In normal operation, one validator will need to be staked. The stake is assumed to be 0.2% of the total value of the chain (which is assumed to be $1 per user who is eligible to claim points). The cost of staking is the interest that could be earned on the money if it were not staked.
  • Validator computation and storage: Every validator must do computation to track the chain’s processing of transactions, and must maintain storage to keep track of the contracts’ EVM storage. The cost of computation and storage are estimated based on measurements, with the dollar cost of resources based on Amazon Web Services pricing.
It’s clear from our modeling that the predominant cost is for L1 calldata. This will probably be true for any plausible rollup-based system.
Our model also shows that Arbitrum can scale to workloads much larger than Reddit’s nominal workload, without exhausting L1 or L2 resources. The scaling bottleneck will ultimately be calldata on the L1 chain. We believe that cost could be reduced substantially if necessary by clever encoding of data. (In our design any compression / decompression of L2 transaction calldata would be done by client software and L2 programs, never by an L1 contract.)
9. Status of Arbitrum Rollup
Arbitrum Rollup is live on Ethereum testnet. All of the code written to date including everything included in the Reddit demo is open source and permissively licensed under the Apache V2 license. The first testnet version of Arbitrum Rollup was released on testnet in February. Our current internal version, which we used to benchmark the Reddit contracts, will be released soon and will be a major upgrade.
Both the Arbitrum design as well as the implementation are heavily audited by independent third parties. The Arbitrum academic paper was published at USENIX Security, a top-tier peer-reviewed academic venue. For the Arbitrum software, we have engaged Trail of Bits for a security audit, which is currently ongoing, and we are committed to have a clean report before launching on Ethereum mainnet.
10. Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup Chain
The benchmarks described in this document were all measured using the latest internal build of our software. When we release the new software upgrade publicly we will launch a Reddit Universe Arbitrum Rollup chain as a public demo, which will contain the Reddit contracts as well as a Uniswap instance and a Connext Hub, demonstrating how Community Points can be integrated into third party apps. We will also allow members of the public to dynamically launch ecosystem contracts. We at Offchain Labs will cover the validating costs for the Reddit Universe public demo.
If the folks at Reddit would like to evaluate our software prior to our public demo, please email us at [email protected] and we'd be more than happy to provide early access.
11. Even more scaling: Arbitrum Sidechains
Rollups are an excellent approach to scaling, and we are excited about Arbitrum Rollup which far surpasses Reddit's scaling needs. But looking forward to Reddit's eventual goal of supporting hundreds of millions of users, there will likely come a time when Reddit needs more scaling than any Rollup protocol can provide.
While Rollups greatly reduce costs, they don't break the linear barrier. That is, all transactions have an on-chain footprint (because all calldata must be posted on-chain), albeit a far smaller one than on native Ethereum, and the L1 limitations end up being the bottleneck for capacity and cost. Since Ethereum has limited capacity, this linear use of on-chain resources means that costs will eventually increase superlinearly with traffic.
The good news is that we at Offchain Labs have a solution in our roadmap that can satisfy this extreme-scaling setting as well: Arbitrum AnyTrust Sidechains. Arbitrum Sidechains are similar to Arbitrum Rollup, but deviate in that they name a permissioned set of validators. When a chain’s validators agree off-chain, they can greatly reduce the on-chain footprint of the protocol and require almost no data to be put on-chain. When validators can't reach unanimous agreement off-chain, the protocol reverts to Arbitrum Rollup. Technically, Arbitrum Sidechains can be viewed as a hybrid between state channels and Rollup, switching back and forth as necessary, and combining the performance and cost that state channels can achieve in the optimistic case, with the robustness of Rollup in other cases. The core technical challenge is how to switch seamlessly between modes and how to guarantee that security is maintained throughout.
Arbitrum Sidechains break through this linear barrier, while still maintaining a high level of security and decentralization. Arbitrum Sidechains provide the AnyTrust guarantee, which says that as long as any one validator is honest and available (even if you don't know which one will be), the L2 chain is guaranteed to execute correctly according to its code and guaranteed to make progress. Unlike in a state channel, offchain progress does not require unanimous consent, and liveness is preserved as long as there is a single honest validator.
Note that the trust model for Arbitrum Sidechains is much stronger than for typical BFT-style chains which introduce a consensus "voting" protocols among a small permissioned group of validators. BFT-based protocols require a supermajority (more than 2/3) of validators to agree. In Arbitrum Sidechains, by contrast, all you need is a single honest validator to achieve guaranteed correctness and progress. Notice that in Arbitrum adding validators strictly increases security since the AnyTrust guarantee provides correctness as long as any one validator is honest and available. By contrast, in BFT-style protocols, adding nodes can be dangerous as a coalition of dishonest nodes can break the protocol.
Like Arbitrum Rollup, the developer and user experiences for Arbitrum Sidechains will be identical to that of Ethereum. Reddit would be able to choose a large and diverse set of validators, and all that they would need to guarantee to break through the scaling barrier is that a single one of them will remain honest.
We hope to have Arbitrum Sidechains in production in early 2021, and thus when Reddit reaches the scale that surpasses the capacity of Rollups, Arbitrum Sidechains will be waiting and ready to help.
While the idea to switch between channels and Rollup to get the best of both worlds is conceptually simple, getting the details right and making sure that the switch does not introduce any attack vectors is highly non-trivial and has been the subject of years of our research (indeed, we were working on this design for years before the term Rollup was even coined).
12. How Arbitrum compares
We include a comparison to several other categories as well as specific projects when appropriate. and explain why we believe that Arbitrum is best suited for Reddit's purposes. We focus our attention on other Ethereum projects.
Payment only Rollups. Compared to Arbitrum Rollup, ZK-Rollups and other Rollups that only support token transfers have several disadvantages:
  • As outlined throughout the proposal, we believe that the entire draw of Ethereum is in its rich smart contracts support which is simply not achievable with today's zero-knowledge proof technology. Indeed, scaling with a ZK-Rollup will add friction to the deployment of smart contracts that interact with Community Points as users will have to withdraw their coins from the ZK-Rollup and transfer them to a smart contract system (like Arbitrum). The community will be best served if Reddit builds on a platform that has built-in, frictionless smart-contract support.
  • All other Rollup protocols of which we are aware employ a centralized operator. While it's true that users retain custody of their coins, the centralized operator can often profit from censoring, reordering, or delaying transactions. A common misconception is that since they're non-custodial protocols, a centralized sequencer does not pose a risk but this is incorrect as the sequencer can wreak havoc or shake down users for side payments without directly stealing funds.
  • Sidechain type protocols can eliminate some of these issues, but they are not trustless. Instead, they require trust in some quorum of a committee, often requiring two-third of the committee to be honest, compared to rollup protocols like Arbitrum that require only a single honest party. In addition, not all sidechain type protocols have committees that are diverse, or even non-centralized, in practice.
  • Plasma-style protocols have a centralized operator and do not support general smart contracts.
13. Concluding Remarks
While it's ultimately up to the judges’ palate, we believe that Arbitrum Rollup is the bakeoff choice that Reddit kneads. We far surpass Reddit's specified workload requirement at present, have much room to optimize Arbitrum Rollup in the near term, and have a clear path to get Reddit to hundreds of millions of users. Furthermore, we are the only project that gives developers and users the identical interface as the Ethereum blockchain and is fully interoperable and tooling-compatible, and we do this all without any new trust assumptions or centralized components.
But no matter how the cookie crumbles, we're glad to have participated in this bake-off and we thank you for your consideration.
About Offchain Labs
Offchain Labs, Inc. is a venture-funded New York company that spun out of Princeton University research, and is building the Arbitrum platform to usher in the next generation of scalable, interoperable, and compatible smart contracts. Offchain Labs is backed by Pantera Capital, Compound VC, Coinbase Ventures, and others.
Leadership Team
Ed Felten
Ed Felten is Co-founder and Chief Scientist at Offchain Labs. He is on leave from Princeton University, where he is the Robert E. Kahn Professor of Computer Science and Public Affairs. From 2015 to 2017 he served at the White House as Deputy United States Chief Technology Officer and senior advisor to the President. He is an ACM Fellow and member of the National Academy of Engineering. Outside of work, he is an avid runner, cook, and L.A. Dodgers fan.
Steven Goldfeder
Steven Goldfeder is Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer at Offchain Labs. He holds a PhD from Princeton University, where he worked at the intersection of cryptography and cryptocurrencies including threshold cryptography, zero-knowledge proof systems, and post-quantum signatures. He is a co-author of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies, the leading textbook on cryptocurrencies, and he has previously worked at Google and Microsoft Research, where he co-invented the Picnic signature algorithm. When not working, you can find Steven spending time with his family, taking a nature walk, or twisting balloons.
Harry Kalodner
Harry Kalodner is Co-founder and Chief Technology Officer at Offchain Labs where he leads the engineering team. Before the company he attended Princeton as a Ph.D candidate where his research explored economics, anonymity, and incentive compatibility of cryptocurrencies, and he also has worked at Apple. When not up at 3:00am writing code, Harry occasionally sleeps.
submitted by hkalodner to ethereum [link] [comments]

77 FREE Courses & 45 Best Selling Discounted Courses (Udemy & Eduonix)


  1. [0h 59m] How to Make Passive Income With Bitcoin Lending https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-make-passive-income-with-bitcoin-lending/?couponCode=AUGFFW2020 2 Days left at this price!
  2. [15h 14m] Ultimate Excel Training Course - Intro to Advanced Pro https://www.udemy.com/course/ultimate-excel-training-course-intro-to-advanced-pro/?couponCode=EXCELFORFREE 2 Days left at this price!
  3. [1h 54m] Let's JavaScript! Newbie Friendly!: Part 2 https://www.udemy.com/course/lets-javascript-beginners-coding-projects-in-javascript/?couponCode=E27D92FB1765F4D6EB14 1 Day left at this price!
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  5. [3h 39m] Network Ethical Hacking (Kali Linux 2020 - Hands-on) https://www.udemy.com/course/network-ethical-hacking/?couponCode=9FFDF98B623CD4605F1F 2 Days left at this price!
  6. [9h 48m] Online Business – Work from Home https://www.udemy.com/course/online-business-work-from-home/?couponCode=1E0517CF750FF846A0A9 2 Days left at this price!
  7. [90h 49m] QuickBooks Online 2020, 2019 & 2018 Start to Finish https://www.udemy.com/course/quickbooks-online-2018-start-to-finish/?couponCode=BA2FE9FD5E9755D55E2B 2 Days left at this price!
  8. [118h 56m] Accounting–Financial Accounting Total-Beginners to Advanced https://www.udemy.com/course/financial-accounting-accounting-cycle/?couponCode=A50CEFDE4901CC0A0A24 2 Days left at this price!
  9. [8h 53m] Xero Not for Profit Organization https://www.udemy.com/course/xero-not-for-profit-organization/?couponCode=8861FEAD134D0F445699 2 Days left at this price!
  10. [8h 54m] Aplos Not for Profit Accounting Software https://www.udemy.com/course/aplos-not-for-profit-accounting-software/?couponCode=A08AA68ED82D5F95DE02 2 Days left at this price!
  11. [3h 48m] Learn Salesforce in easy steps and get certified! https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-salesforce-in-easy-steps-and-get-certified/
  12. [1h 47m] Arduino Data Visualization using Python https://www.udemy.com/course/arduino-python-data-visualization-pyserial-display-data/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW82020 1 Day left at this price!
  13. [2h 36m] Introduction to Python: A Practical Approach https://www.udemy.com/course/python-crash-course-for-beginners-python-programming/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW82020 1 Day left at this price!
  14. [1h 1m] Functional Fitness Training – Easy Way To Get Shape At Home https://www.udemy.com/course/functional-fitness-training-course-video-elderly/?couponCode=779A81075AC53F755866 2 Days left at this price!
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  19. [7h 13m] Facebook Dynamic Ads (Facebook Dynamic Retargeting) MASTERY https://www.udemy.com/course/facebook-dynamic-ads/?couponCode=DYNAMICADS48 2 Days left at this price!
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  21. [100 questions] Python Programming Skills Test With Explanation https://www.udemy.com/course/python-skills-test-with-explanation/?couponCode=IHOPEYOULIKE 2 Days left at this price!
  22. [0h 32min] Lean In Presents: What Works for Women at Work https://www.udemy.com/lean-in-what-works-for-women-at-work/
  23. [1h 27m] Get Hired: Branding & Networking in the Now Economy https://www.udemy.com/course/brandingandnetworking/
  24. [2h 3m] Get Hired: Bring Your Interview A-Game https://www.udemy.com/course/bringyourinterviewagame/
  25. [1h 54m] Learn Power BI Fast https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-power-bi-fast/
  26. [1h 40m] YOGA FOR WOMEN: Level I https://www.udemy.com/course/yoga-for-women/
  27. [13h 40m] Not for Profit QuickBooks Desktop vs QuickBooks Online https://www.udemy.com/course/not-for-profit-quickbooks-desktop-vs-quickbooks-online/?couponCode=EF8673F88D87445285E2 2 Days left at this price!
  28. [17h 59m] Governmental Accounting 100 https://www.udemy.com/course/governmental-accounting-100/?couponCode=C9F02CCD1D522145A404 2 Days left at this price!
  29. [4h 15m] S Corporation Income Tax - Form 1120S https://www.udemy.com/course/s-corporation-income-tax/?couponCode=943FB0957EB1A5175B7B 2 Days left at this price!
  30. [5h 22m] Xero Job Costing – Projects https://www.udemy.com/course/xero-job-costing-projects/?couponCode=C1F0D79CC6240D1BD0B3 2 Days left at this price!
  31. [10h 55m] Financial Statement Analysis – Ratio Analysis https://www.udemy.com/course/financial-statement-analysis-ratio-analysis/?couponCode=AF242D967C266A182755 2 Days left at this price!
  32. [4h 3m] Azure Data Factory V2: Guide to Cloud Data Engineers(DP 200) https://www.udemy.com/course/azure-data-factory-complete-guide-for-cloud-data-engineers/?couponCode=306D08846FC1C7ABF21A 2 Days left at this price!
  33. [1h 4m] Complete Captioning and Transcription Course for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-work-in-subtitling-from-home/?couponCode=FREE1DAY 2 Days left at this price!
  34. [9h 16m] Learning SOLIDWORKS : For Students, Engineers, and Designers https://www.udemy.com/course/learning-solidworks-for-students-engineers-and-designers/?couponCode=HAPPYINDEPENDENCEDAY 0 Day left at this price!
  35. [1h 56m] Learn Git and Terminal for Building Android Apps https://youaccel.com/admin/cdisplay.php?promocode=FREEBIESGLOBAL&promocc=yes&tsrc=225691&cid=888976
  36. [5h 12m] Practical Web Design & Development: 7 Courses in 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-web-design-html-css-adobe-photoshop/?couponCode=WEBDESIGNAUG2020 2 Days left at this price!
  37. [2h 56m] Basic Financial Accounting Course in Urdu / Hindi https://www.udemy.com/course/basic-financial-accounting-course-in-urdu-hindi/?couponCode=5530275A10BFE521182D 2 Days left at this price!
  38. [6h 1m] Data Analysis Nanodegree https://www.udemy.com/course/data-analysis-nanodegree/?couponCode=964F854411397C0CC3D3 2 Days left at this price!
  39. [2h 25m] Let's JavaScript! Newbie Friendly! Part 3 https://www.udemy.com/course/lets-javascript-coding-projects/?couponCode=03F293C6A36EB6E238CD 1 Day left at this price!
  40. [11h 5m] Marketing Analytics and Retail Business Management https://www.udemy.com/course/marketing-analytics-marketing-strategy-models-in-excel/?couponCode=AUGRI2020 1 Day left at this price!
  41. [4h 29m] Electronic & Electrical Devices Maintenance&Troubleshooting https://www.udemy.com/course/electronic-electronics-maintenance-electronic-devices-maintenance/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW82020 1 Day left at this price!
  42. [3h 5m] Ms Excel/Excel 2020 - the complete introduction to Excel https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-the-complete-intro/?couponCode=B3C8308145AA10D1823B 2 Days left at this price!
  43. [2h 25m] Microsoft Excel DATA ANALYSIS Using my Proven 4-Step System https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-data-analysis-4-step-system/?couponCode=4STEPEXCELANALYSIS 2 Days left at this price!
  44. [1h 9m] CSS Basics https://www.udemy.com/course/colorcode-css-basics/
  45. [1h 14m] Sell Photo Online: Beginners Guide Stock Photography https://www.udemy.com/course/mastering-stock-photography-step-by-step-guideline/?couponCode=STOCKAUG2020 1 Day left at this price!
  46. [1h 31m] Learn Figma for Web Design, User Interface, UI UX in an hour https://www.udemy.com/course/digital-design-in-figma-scratch-hou?couponCode=APP-DESIGN 1 Day left at this price!
  47. [1h 58m ] Tableau | A Quick Start Guide Part 2 https://www.udemy.com/course/tableau-a-quick-start-guide-part-2/
  48. [1h 23m] Earned Value Management https://www.udemy.com/course/earned-value-management-end-to-end/ 1 Day left at this price!
  49. [0h 34m] Video Editing with Avid Media Composer First for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-avid-media-composer-first-for-beginners/?couponCode=AKAVFREE 1 Day left at this price!
  50. [1h 51m] FREE Microsoft Dynamics 365&Power Apps(CDS) Developer Course https://www.udemy.com/course/free-microsoft-dynamics-365-development-beginner-course/
  51. [0h 44m] Remote Teaching Online // How To Record Lectures at Home https://www.udemy.com/course/remote-teaching-how-to-record-lectures-at-home/?couponCode=F0B4FC54C2E74D690801 1 Day left at this price!
  52. [5h 30m] Become A Digital Marketing Maestro From Scratch https://www.eduonix.com/courses/Marketing/Become-A-Digital-Marketing-Maestro-From-Scratch/UHJvZHVjdC01OTE4NjA=
  53. [16h 37m] Packaging Design and 3D Mock-up Using Adobe Illustrator 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/packaging-design-and-3d-mock-up-using-adobe-illustrator-2020/?couponCode=DESIGNININDIA 0 Day left at this price!
  54. [1h 54m] Online Course Essentials - Online Course as Fast As Possible https://www.udemy.com/course/online-course-essentials-online-course-as-fast-as-possible/?couponCode=82EDA3CFFDD513951AF7 2 Days left at this price!
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  56. [34h 56m] Machine Learning & Deep Learning in Python & R https://www.udemy.com/course/data_science_a_to_z/?couponCode=AUGRI2020 1 Day left at this price!
  57. [2h 6m] Let's JavaScript! Newbie Friendly: Part 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/lets-javascript-beginners-coding-projects/?couponCode=B8B376EE62C8C1CDCBCF 1 Day left at this price!
  58. Learn How to Build a Game Using Java (Eduonix)
  59. Learn How to Build a Game Using Java (Eduonix)
  60. The Ultimate Guide to RHCSA Certification Exam (Eduonix)
  61. Learn How to Create a TextEditor with Java (Eduonix)
  62. The Complete TypeScript Programming Guide for Web Developers (Eduonix)
  63. Docker for Beginners (Eduonix)
  64. Concepts in Unity 3D Game Programming (Eduonix)
  65. Learn MEAN Stack By Building A ToDo App (Eduonix)
  66. Learn to build an Auth0 App using Angular 2 (Eduonix)
  67. Learn To Build A Google Map App Using Angular 2 (Eduonix)
  68. Learn Linux from Scratch (Eduonix)
  69. Learn Web Development Using VueJS (Eduonix)
  70. Interview Preparation Guide for Social Media Marketing (Eduonix)
  71. Basic HTML5 & CSS for beginners (Build One Project) (Eduonix)
  72. Start a business in 5 days with Shopify and ProductListGenie (Eduonix)
  73. Shopify or Woocommerce? (Eduonix)
  74. Shopify Apps : Transform your business ! (Eduonix)
  75. Entrepreneurship: How to Find and Evaluate new Startup Ideas (Eduonix)
  76. Lean Six Sigma Introduction Specialist (Eduonix)
  77. R programming guide for beginners (Eduonix)
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  9. $40 Mighty Machine Learning Bundle (Eduonix)
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  14. $40 Mighty Python Bundle (Eduonix)
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  16. $44 Mighty DevOps Bundle (Eduonix)
  17. $44 Mighty JavaScript Bundle (Eduonix)
  18. $44 Mighty Web Development Bundle 2.0 (Eduonix)
  19. $9.99 615 lectures • 93h 57m The Ultimate SEO, Social Media & Digital Marketing MASTERY https://www.udemy.com/course/digital-marketing-courses/?couponCode=AUG999
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submitted by ViralMedia007 to FREECoursesEveryday [link] [comments]

CELSIUS - Win 20$ in bitcoins

CELSIUS
Win 20$ in bitcoins
The Celsius Network is a wallet that allows you to earn interest (up to 8.43% / year) or request loans in traditional currency, based on the cryptocurrencies you deposit in it, in addition to being able to buy cryptocurrency.
If you have cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Etherium, Litecoin, Dash, Stellar, Ripple and many others) but, while you wait for their value to rise, they do not yield you, Celsius is the solution!
1 - Install the app through Google Play or the AppStore. You can use this link https://celsiusnetwork.app.link/155829b5f3
2 - Register with the code: 155829b5f3. Note that the code must be entered before the account is created. Press "Have a referral code?" under the "Create account" button to enter the code 155829b5f3.
3 - If you enter the code correctly, a success message will appear.
4 - With the account created, confirm your data.
5 - Make the first deposit for an amount equivalent to 200$ or +, and you receive 20$ in Bitcoins (equivalent to 10% immediately)!
ATTENTION: The reward is blocked for 72 hours, after which it is unlocked. If the amount you deposited is withdrawn from the account during the 72 hour blocking period, the reward will be canceled and there is no way to receive it again.
The bonus was 10$ before, but doubled to 1 July 2020! Enjoy!
submitted by ReferralCodec to referralcodes [link] [comments]

Das passiert, wenn man mit Email Scammern schreibt

Hallo zusammen,
vor ein paar Tagen hatte ich nach Steam Gift Cards gefragt(Bild von Steam Geschenkkarten) um einen dieser tollen Email Scammer zu ärgern. Um euch den Spaß nicht vorzuenthalten, gibt es hier den Emailaustausch. Zeitlich korrekt und DSGVO konform anonymisiert:
#1: Mi 01.04.2020 04:13 Betreff: Are you Available?
...hello I need a favor from you please email me back soon as possible.
Regards
Mein Chef
sent from my iPhone
#2: Mi 01.04.2020 04:35(Nachts im halbschlaf auf dem Handy geantwortet, hab nicht realisiert, dass es ein scammer ist)
Hallo CHEF,
Ich bin verfügbar.
Gruß ICH
#3: Mi 1.04.2020 04:59
Sie müssen mir Geschenkkarten aus jedem Geschäft in Ihrer Nähe besorgen. Es gibt einige Aussichten, die ich brauche, um Geschenkkarten zu verschicken, aber ich kann das nicht richtig machen Jetzt, weil ich gerade im Krankenhaus bin und mich um meinen Bruder kümmere, der schwer krank ist. Lassen Sie mich wissen, ob Sie das bekommen können Ich jetzt, damit ich Ihnen sagen kann, welches Produkt ich brauche und welche Menge.
Vielen Dank
von meinem Iphone gesendet
#4: Mi 01.04.2020 09:38
Hi,
ich hab welche auf deinen Schreibtisch gelegt,
Gruß J
#5: Mi 1.04.2020 11:05
so gut, hol mir eine Steam Wallet INR 500 und schick sie mir jetzt, es ist sehr dringend ..
sent from my iPhone
#6: Mi 01.04.2020 11:23
Hi,
sie hatten nur 10€ Gutscheinkarten, aber davon gleich genug. Hier sind die ersten Codes, es ist eine ganz schöne Arbeit die alle Abzutippen. Aber ich hoffe sie helfen dir. Die Kassiererin meinte, dass es einige Stunde dauern kann, bis sie Aktiviert sind.
UVP40-GY8N7-ZM8EK
RRYIX-20JG8-VJAP6
6WSUE-CFCX7-H1PVP
RLF7P-D4EWU-B0O8Q
G32K5-B573W-PF3M1
WJ7DY-8399B-6SBO4
PAEJ2-T9VGL-MWX5X
6MM32-9VS3X-O7MZK
SYSVA-CFQ3N-ERXW2
7HKCC-QBGO8-T3UK5
Gruß J
#7: Mi 01.04.2020 12:23
Am waiting to receive the cards..
#8: Mi 01.04.2020 19:54
am still on it......
#9: Do 02.04.2020 03:33
invalid codes....still waiting
#10: Do 02.04.2020 09:05 Anhang
Hi,
they are valid, please be patient, the cashier said it would take some time to activate. Attached you find a picture of the cards, so you don’t think I am lying to you.
How is your brother, I heard he is worse? How does your sister cope with the situation?
In the mean time I typed up some of the next codes
26ADS-DQQHO-I0LD1
ATOBQ-LQIOE-DJ1P1
QZQDL-D68ND-QOIBM
QBR1W-3UIOA-QWRQ1
ORQOQ-QDQQ3-QQDAY
OIINI-OOODW-018OU
8C1FS-WG7QE-Q6LQD
O1MOA-Q1IRA-5RIQO
ZRO81-U1QZD-OOYTI
The problem is, that due to the corona outbreak no non essential shops are open and my glasses broke last weak. I might read some of the characters wrong, so you might try a 1 instead of I or so. I am terribly sorry, but nothing I can do about it right now.
Regards, J
#11: Do 02.04.2020 09:45
still waiting for the rest...
#12: Do 02.04.2020 09:46
but why can't you send me the scratch pictures, so it can be easy for them.
#13: Do 02.04.2020 09:56
Kindly send the full picture of the cards for reference.
#14: Do 02.04.2020 10:34
Hey ME, the code are invalid, why can't you get it, in other stores or pharmacy around in you
Thanks
#15: Do 02.04.2020 10:45 Anhang
Hi,
there is something of a global pandemic happening right now, which is slightly influencing everyday life, which I hope you have heard until now. I am still waiting for the next opportunity to do my own grocery shopping, so you have to wait too.
The cards are in your office, so you have to wait for a picture of the codes until I am around the next time but I have picture of one card and a few more codes
HG82-U0Z75-IST10
OQOB0-LI0EP-VI1UB
QQ8DJ-IU10D-1RA0I
DF0KN-9S4PQ-PWX00
The cashier said it might take up to 48h to activate, due to the covid-19 pandemic. So be patient.
Regards J
#16: Do 02.04.2020 11:55
send me the pictures..
Thanks
#17: Do 02.04.2020 16:38 (Bilder von euren Geschenkkarten)
Hi,
there is still a lockdown in progress, all the corona pandemic thing, you know? But nevertheless, some pictures for you.
Best regards, J
#18: Do 02.04.2020 16:43
okay... send me the rest pictures...
Thanks
#19: Do 02.04.2020 16:57
Hi ME, all this cards are in invalid and been used....
Thanks
#20: Do 02.04.2020 16:58
Can you do me a favor, did you have a bitcoin account...thanks
Sent from my iPhone
#21: Do 02.04.2020 17:00 als Antwort auf #19
Hi,
that can’t be the case. I tested all of them and they worked!
Regards J
#22: Do 02.04.2020 17:02
Okay
#23: Do 02.04.2020 17:02
Should i send my bitcoin account
thanks
#24: Do 02.04.2020 17:04
What’s a bitcoin?
#25: Do 02.04.2020 17:06
Okay, how can you get the card for me, it vert urgent.
#26: Do 02.04.2020 17:08
Well, the easiest is to go to your office yourself and get them. Or ask your secretary to bring them over tomorrow. I won’t be in the office for the next day due to the lockdown.
#27: Do 02.04.2020 17:11
today but I can’t do that right now because I’m currently busy in the Hospital attending to a friend, he's critically ill .Let me know if its possible to get them right now, . I’ll reimburse you.
Sent from my iPhone
#28: Do 02.04.2020 17:21
I am terrible sorry you had to degrade your brother to just a friend, but I am unable to go to the office right now. I feel like I catched the corona-virus and should self-isolate for the next 14 days.
Best regards J
#29: Fr 03.04.2020 23:19 (Ich hab sein Email-Account an Google gemeldet, anscheinend wurde er gesperrt, denn diese Email kam von einer neuen Mail Adresse)
Hi Mein Nachname, Kindly block and don't reply this particular mail ([email protected]) again, because i have some issues with it right now.
Regards, Nachname, Vorname Titel
Sent from my iPhone
#30: Fr 03.04.2020 23:21
I will not answer to this email again
#31: Fr 03.04.2020 23:21
No problemo
#32: Fr 03.04.2020 23:23 (Bild von euren Steam Geschenkkarten)
Btw, do you still want the steam gift cards? I had the time to take a photo of a few more.
Regards J
#33: Fr 03.04.2020 23:23
How is your friend in the hospital doing?
#34: Fr 03.04.2020 23:28 (Als Antwort auf #32)
Okay,but the prospect are complaining about the €20 cards. Kindly purchase the value of €100 gift cards.
Thanks for helping me out.
#35: Fr 03.04.2020 23:32
Who of your friends are complaining about free money? And again, there is something of a global pandemic going around now, there is no casual shopping going to happen. So accept the 1߀ and 20€ gift cards.
#36: Fr 03.04.2020 23:31
You are to purchase 7 pieces..
Thanks
#37: Fr 03.04.2020 23:33
You can also purchase them online for me..
#38: Fr 03.04.2020 23:36
Whats this online? Is this a new store?
#39: Fr 03.04.2020 23:36 (Als Antwort auf die #36)
I am to purchase nothing as the law stated that there is no leaving the house for non essential purchases. As this won’t keep me from starving, this is a non essential purchase and I am not willing to be shot by the police for some steam gift cards. I already put in some great effort to get you these in these times and you act so unthankful. Your brother is dying and nothing we do for you is worth anything!
#40: Fr 03.04.2020 23:43 (Als Antwort auf #38)
I understand the situation,but can you get them done for me early tomorrow morning?
#41: Fr 03.04.2020 23:45
No, early tomorrow is impossible. You know I have the kids and can’t go shopping in this time.
#42: Fr 03.04.2020 23:46
Ok, no problem.
#43: Sa 04.04.2020 10:20
Hi Vorname good morning..
Thanks
#44: Sa 04.04.2020 13:07
Hi,
how is your brother. Is he better now?
#45: Sa 04.04.2020 13:12
Yes i will kindly need your assistance this morning and i will be glad if you render your help for me.
Thanks
#46: Sa 04.04.2020 14:18
Should I meet you in the office?
#47: Sa 04.04.2020 14:28
Hi Vorname am not in office still in hospital now..
Thanks
Seit der letzten Email kam nicht mehr. Möglicherweise habe ich auch seinen neuen Email-Account bei Google gemeldet und er wurde gesperrt. Mein Ziel war es, mit möglichst wenig Aufwand den Scammer auf trab zu halten. Um sein Interesse nicht zu verlieren, spiele ich bewusst grenzwertig Dumm und Naiv, was genau die Zielgruppe dieser Menschen ist. Die Bilder sollen ihn antürlich bei Stange halten, ansonsten könnte er auf die Idee kommen, dass ich gar keine echten Karten gekauft habe. Die Codes habe ich schnell Online generiert. Nach dem Hinweis mit der Brille habe ich bewusst Codes generiert, die Überprobortional viele verwechselbare Buchstaben beinhalten. Ich hoffe er hat ein para Stunden damit verbracht, alle möglichen Kombinationen auszuprobieren.
submitted by cloidnerux to de [link] [comments]

Price Discovery in Bitcoin exchange

About thirty days ago I shared a chart on Price Discovery in this sub. There was a lot of interest in it and I promised to explain in detail a Bitcoin price discovery algorithm.. I do so in this post.
*this text post is a slightly shorter version of what I wrote in my blog.

TL;DR

I applied price discovery algorithms to 5 Min OHLCV data from Bitmex and CME contracts and Bitstamp, Coinbase, HitBTC, Kraken, Poloniex, Binance, and OkEx BTCUSD/BTCUSDT markets from March 2016 to May 2020. Some exciting results I got was:

Introduction

Price discovery is the overall process of setting the price of an asset. Price discovery algorithms identify the leader exchanges whose traders define the price. Two approaches are most famous for use in Price Discovery. Gonzalo and Granger (1995) and Hasbrouck (1995). But they assume random walk, and a common efficient price. I do not feel comfortable assuming random walk and common efficient price in Bitcoin Markets. So I used this little know method by De Blasis (2019) for this analysis. This work assumes that "the fastest price to reflect new information releases a price signal to the other slower price series." I thought this was valid in our market. It uses Markov Chains to measure Price Discovery. Without going into the mathematical details the summary steps used was:
De Blasis (2019) names this number Price Leadership Share (PLS). High PLS indicates a large role in price discovery. As the sum of the numbers is 1, they can be looked at as a percentage contribution. I recommend reading the original paper if you are interested to know more about the mathematical detail.

Data

Andersen (2000) argues that 5 Minute window provides the best trade-off between getting enough data and avoiding noise. In one of the first work on Bitcoin's Price Discovery, Brandvold et al. 2015 had used 5M window. So I obtained 5M OHLCV data using the following sources:
Futures data are different from other data because multiple futures contract trades at the same time. I formed a single data from the multiple time series by selecting the nearest contract until it was three days from expiration. I used the next contract when the contract was three days from expiration. This approach was advocated by Booth et al ( 1999 )

Analysis

I can't embed the chart on reddit so open this https://warproxxx.github.io/static/price_discovery.html
In the figure above, each colored line shows the total influence the exchange had towards the discovery of Bitcoin Price on that day. Its axis is on the left. The black line shows a moving average of the bitcoin price at the close in Bitfinex for comparison. The chart was created by plotting the EMA of price and dominance with a smoothing factor of 0.1. This was done to eliminate the noise. Let's start looking from the beginning. We start with a slight Bitfinex dominance at the start. When the price starts going up, Bitfinex's influence does too. This was the time large Tether printing was attributed to the rise of price by many individuals. But Bitfinex's influence wanes down as the price starts rising (remember that the chart is an exponential moving average. Its a lagging indicator). Afterward, exchanges like Binance and Bitstamp increase their role, and there isn't any single leader in the run. So although Bitfinex may have been responsible for the initial pump trades on other exchanges were responsible for the later rally.
CME contracts were added to our analysis in February 2018. Initially, they don't have much influence. On a similar work Alexandar and Heck (2019) noted that initially CBOE contracts had more influence. CBOE later delisted Bitcoin futures so I couldn't get that data. Overall, Bitmex and CME contracts have been averaging around 50% of the role in price discovery. To make the dominance clear, look at this chart where I add Bitmex Futures and Perp contract's dominance figure to create a single dominance index. There bitmex leads 936 of the total 1334 days (Bitfinex leads 298 days and coinbase and binance get 64 and 6 days). That is a lot. One possible reason for this might be Bitmex's low trading fee. Bitmex has a very generous -0.025% maker fee and price discovery tend to occur primarily in the market with smaller trading costs (Booth et al, 1999). It may also be because our market is mature. In mature markets, futures lead the price discovery.
Exchange bitmex_futures bitfinex coinbase bitmex okex binance cme bitstamp okcoin kraken poloniex
Days Lead 571 501 102 88 34 12 8 7 6 4 1
 Table 1: Days Lead 
Out of 1334 days in the analysis, Bitmex futures leads the discovery in 571 days or nearly 43% of the duration. Bitfinex leads for 501 days. Bitfinex's high number is due to its extreme dominance in the early days.
Exchange binance huobi cme okcoin bitmex_futures okex hitbtc kraken poloniex bitstamp bitfinex coinbase bitmex
Correlation 0.809190 0.715667 0.648058 0.644432 0.577147 0.444821 0.032649 -0.187348 -0.365175 -0.564073 -0.665008 -0.695115 -0.752103
 Table 2: Correlation between the close price and Exchange's dominance index 
Binance, Huobi, CME, and OkCoin had the most significant correlation with the close price. Bitmex, Coinbase, Bitfinex, and Bitstamp's dominance were negatively correlated. This was very interesting. To know more, I captured a yearwise correlation.
index 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0 bitfinex 0.028264 -0.519791 0.829700 -0.242631 0.626386
1 bitmex 0.090758 -0.752297 -0.654742 0.052242 -0.584956
2 bitmex_futures -0.011323 -0.149281 -0.458857 0.660135 0.095305
3 bitstamp 0.316291 -0.373688 0.600240 -0.255408 -0.407608
4 coinbase -0.505492 -0.128336 -0.351794 -0.410874 -0.262036
5 hitbtc 0.024425 0.486229 0.104912 -0.200203 0.308862
6 kraken 0.275797 0.422656 0.294762 -0.064594 -0.192290
7 poloniex 0.177616 -0.087090 0.230987 -0.135046 -0.154726
8 binance NaN 0.865295 0.706725 -0.484130 0.265086
9 okcoin NaN 0.797682 0.463455 -0.010186 -0.160217
10 huobi NaN 0.748489 0.351514 -0.298418 0.434164
11 cme NaN NaN -0.616407 0.694494 -0.012962
12 okex NaN NaN -0.618888 -0.399567 0.432474
Table 3: Yearwise Correlation between the close price and Exchange's dominance index
Price movement is pretty complicated. If one factor, like a dominant exchange, could explain it, everyone would be making money trading. With this disclaimer out of the way, let us try to make some conclusions. This year Bitfinex, Huobi, and OkEx, Tether based exchanges, discovery power have shown a high correlation with the close price. This means that when the traders there become successful, price rises. When the traders there are failing, Bitmex traders dominate and then the price is falling. I found this interesting as I have been seeing the OkEx whale who has been preceding price rises in this sub. I leave the interpretation of other past years to the reader.

Limitations

My analysis does not include market data for other derivative exchanges like Huobi, OkEx, Binance, and Deribit. So, all future market's influence may be going to Bitmex. I did not add their data because they started having an impact recently. A more fair assessment may be to conclude this as the new power of derivative markets instead of attributing it as the power of Bitmex. But Bitmex has dominated futures volume most of the time (until recently). And they brought the concept of perpetual swaps.

Conclusion

There is a lot in this data. If you are making a trading algo think there is some edge here. Someday I will backtest some trading logic based on this data. Then I will have more info and might write more. But, this analysis was enough for to shift my focus from a Bitfinex based trading algorithm to a Bitmex based one. It has been giving me good results.
If you have any good ideas that you want me to write about or discuss further please comment. If there is enough interest in this measurement, I can setup a live interface that provides the live value.
submitted by warproxxx to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Celsius: win 20$ in bitcoins

CELSIUS
Win 20$ in bitcoins
The Celsius Network is a wallet that allows you to earn interest (up to 8.43% / year) or request loans in traditional currency, based on the cryptocurrencies you deposit in it, in addition to being able to buy cryptocurrency.
If you have cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Etherium, Litecoin, Dash, Stellar, Ripple and many others) but, while you wait for their value to rise, they do not yield you, Celsius is the solution!
1 - Install the app through Google Play or the AppStore or you can use this link https://celsiusnetwork.app.link/155829b5f3
2 - Register with the code: 155829b5f3. Note that the code must be entered before the account is created. Press "Have a referral code?" under the "Create account" button to enter the code 155829b5f3.
3 - If you enter the code correctly, a success message will appear.
4 - With the account created, confirm your data.
5 - Make the first deposit for an amount equivalent to 200$ or +, and you receive 20$ in Bitcoins (equivalent to 10% immediately)!
ATTENTION: The reward is blocked for 72 hours, after which it is unlocked. If the amount you deposited is withdrawn from the account during the 72 hour blocking period, the reward will be canceled and there is no way to receive it again.
The bonus was 10$ before, but doubled at 1 July 2020! Enjoy!
submitted by ReferralCodec to referralcodes [link] [comments]

[Paracosm Discord] Hans's Inspiring Conv: Tangle Inside

2/6
Disclaimer:
This is my editing, so there could be some misunderstandings.
Anyone who wants to read everything should go to the 'spec' of Paracosm discord.
IMHO, Hans's philosophy and motivation is worth sharing widely.



Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 7:57
People are more motivated then ever

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:02
the point is that the IF is not going to be there forever - its not meant to
having a self sustainable ecosystem is very important for the maturity of the protocol

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:03
No it's not
if IF would cease to exist tomorrow - it would be finished by the people working for the IF anyway
I am 100% sure
and if i would have to do it alone ...

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:05
we can all do it together - and we are actually doing it already
hornet and goshimmer have VERY close ties
they are really good friends and very capable coders
its an honor to work with them

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:06
[when do you reckon the shift to binary will take place?]
its being merged in goshimmer tomorrow :smile:

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:14
[about Multiverse]
the last statements of popov was that it "might work"
he still has some concerns
i guess he still tends to think the chances of it not working as bigger than the chances of it working
I am 100% sure it works - but maybe its on me to prove that with a fully functional prototype.

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:17
My goal is to show a prototype being able to process 10 million tps by the mid of this year - we will see if I can pull this off
maybe time will be rare, considering the parallel work on coordicide
maybe I should aim for end of 2020 instead

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:19
of course it includes sharding
that whole point of IOTA is sharding
and a completely new form of sharding

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:19
[why 10m TPS?]
its just a random number
some kind of goal post
so you can process the entirety of bitcoins history in 1minute and 30 seconds?
would be a nice thing

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:21
coordicide and multiverse would essentially use the same sharding principles
I hope that we can share more on that soon
Oh its quite concrete
we are starting to write math papers about it already

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:23
FPC is perfectly fine for sharding
you have to forget the discrete sharding world of blockchains where you just make n copies of the same thing
its very different


Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:30
I would LOVE to share that with you but maybe just wait a but longer - we will be more open about this pretty soon
let's just say that we still have some aces in our sleeves

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:49
nope
I am completely new in crypto but I am pretty sure that some people might "know me from before"
if they would know what I did before

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:57
dude the IF has reached a stage where it would survive without anbybody
I could drop dead tomorrow and the IF would continue, same goes for David or anybody else

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:00
all the corporates and everything ... it might not be fully reflected in the price yet but IOTA has a really really bright future

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:01
I think we are starting to see a pretty bullish sentiment around IOTA lately
I only hope that its due to our increased transparency with a clear roadmap and everyhting, and not just some random fluke in the prices
It would just feel much more "rewarding" to be a consequence of our efforts :joy:

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:05
i am buying more IOTA every month : was very happy about the low prices
but I can understand that if you just "have to believe" and have no insight about the actual progress, then these prices can feel more concerning than a "bargain"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:13
Do you really expect a guy working on IOTA to not be bullish about the tech and everything?
I am not in IOTA for the moneyzzz

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:18
if you are asking for investment advice, then I am most probably the worst person to ask
as my trades in crypto have always been horrible

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:20
I didn't have the chance to be around in the ICO days so I need to take what's left

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:27
I don't know man - everybody that I know is not willing to sell

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:35
Yassin is the proof that "reputation" is worth something
A man of honor - my deepest respect to you man
People who stick to their word and can be trusted are sadly a rare thing in today's world

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:39
I anyway think that we have way too much tribalism in crypto
people should really stop praising "people and projects" and instead start to praise ideas and concepts

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:43
I mean I get the whole concept of having a single currency and shit, but if the tech is bad? I mean this is the first time in the history of humans that we can "design" the very foundation of our social and economical layer
why would we not go for the best available tech?
bitcoin was "a breakthrough" when it was released
and it helped to kickstart a whole field of research
but its clearly not the best possible solution

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:47
ultimately the best tech will win
just look at bitcoins dominance
its fading long term
sure it was time for a correction from the 2017 run of alts

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:47
but the overall trend is pretty clear
bitcoins days are numbered

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:54
maybe I can leak one thing about IOTA's sharding solution without giving away too much: Every single node can individually decide how much data it wants to process - so you can have very very resource-constrained nodes like sensors and stuff in the same network as nodes with hundreds of cores and they will be able to work together seamlessly
there will essentially be no "minimum hardware requirements" for a node (of course you have "some" requirements to even be able to run some kind of logic)

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:56
We are on the forefront of research when it comes to VDF's but its not really related
VDFs would maybe be a way to replace PoW in the future as a rate control mechanism

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:58
you don't need big nodes
you can be as big as you want to be
but naturally some nodes will have more power than others

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:01
possible - the whole mana system is based on "reputation", if you run a reliable cluster of nodes that people are willing to use, then you can earn mana
and since mana decides how many transactions you can issue, you can of course "allow others to use your resources" for money
so operating a reliable node cluster could be sth that people might do "for a living" in the future
maybe it would be best to build up a reputation already today

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:03
if you have funds in the network, then you will generate more than enough mana to have enough "shares" in the network to use it
for free
but if anybody wants to just piggyback on the network without holding tokens, then he might have to pay a "fee"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:05
if you want to send a lot of data transactions, then you better have some tokens
I mean its just fair, right?
you don't have any stake in the network but you wanna use it? then pay for it
but people who have funds in the network can use it for free

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:07
i think ultimately the community will provide a plugin for the nodes, where you can "automatically" rent your excess reputation for some income

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:08
[what would the income be ?]
tokens
IOTA

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:09
by the people who want to use the network more than what their token holding would allow them to
so they rent "mana" from the people who have it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:10
the internet took off when flat-rate emerged
and prices became predictable
the same is true for crypto

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:11
thats why companies like IOTA so much ... it creates a platform that has "predictable" prices
any mining based crypto will never be able to offer the same
Beeing feeless is not just a "funny feature", its the key to mass adoption

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:14
If I run a node and have funds in the network, then why would I pay anybody anything? I am supporting the network already by using it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:16
Yeah we are using "mana 2" now which is also the one that is implemented in the goshimmer mana package
the formulas are going to change a bit tho
we had like 16 different versions of mana with all very different implications on game theory and code

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:18
but serguei is the expert when it comes to game theory and we are pretty confident that we have chosen the correct survivor

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:19
[The mana implementation does seem like the slipperiest slope]
it uses a few economic theories from the early 20th century (from silvio gesell) by having smth like a "demurrage function"
so the rich dont get richer
its software - if any design decision turns out to be problematic, you patch it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:20
[So it’s hard to maintain a high mana]
its not like you have to live with it for thousands of years like in our current FIAT system
if you make it right from the start, the rich will never become that powerful that they could even dare to fork

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:22
you are "RENTING" out your excess resources
that doesn't mean that you will broadcast everything unseen
If somebody tries to use your node to perform an attack you will just ignore it
of course you might "lose the fees" that they would be willing to pay you to perform this attack,
but ultimately you will have to decide what is more valuable to you
the few cents of IOTA you earn or your "reputation / mana"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:25
the nodes will perform all of the sanity checks, so they don't "accidently" take part in an attack of course
the point is that its a voting system based on mana
if I use your node to "issue a transaction",
then I maybe pay you for issuing this tx
but your "opinion on that tx" is independent of that

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:29
actually I even think that the whole coordicide principles especially in connection with the sharding are very much in line with cfb's initial vision - and I am actually a bit sad that he never really dared to honestly look into them

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:29
I was even thinking about "naming" the multiverse "cfbs vision" once
maybe its more (pauls's vision) than cfbs vision
paul handy was one of the other early developers of IOTA btw.
and a very very smart person I have to say
a lot of the ideas that we are currently pursuing go back to his line of thinking

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:32
the infamous "ontology principles"
the ultimate goal is to be able to run "anything" on the tangle - not just value transfers but literally anything, event remotely related to DLT's
I envision IOTA being a general purpose DLT platform
pretty much like TCP/IP was for the internet

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:36
I introduced "broadcasts" a few days ago as a new concept that is the equivalent of UDP messages

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:49
I think that one of the things where cfb and me disagree regarding the "vision of IOTA" is that he think thats we should "finalize" the protocol as soon as possible (or "set it in stone" as he likes to call it), so hardware manufacturer can start to build hardware, whereas I think that it makes much more sense for it to be something like an "open evolving standard" that is so flexible that you can literally build whatever the fuck you want based on this protocol.

The internet wouldn't have been the internet, if it would have "just" been for sending scientific messages between researchers.
I can not anticipate and know what humans might do with DLT in the future, so limiting myself to "only value transfers" is IMHO the wrong decision.
for something to be successful, it needs to be able to "model" everything that could possibly exist

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:51
IOTA will be able to run "anything" on top of it - even "virtual instances of other cryptocurrencies"
and its not going to be some quirky slow emulation - it would most probably even be faster and more reliable than when being implemented without it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:52
similar to "INTEL inside" you will most probably see sth like "Tangle inside" soon

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:54
"any application" running on top of the tangle (MAM, DID, Qubic, Matrix ... you name them) would ALWAYS have to be able to process IOTA value transfers
THAT's what will give the token a value

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:55
if everybody can already "speak the same language" anyway, then people will also use that language to communicate
which means that people will use the IOTA token to transfer value
so we don't need to "force ourselves" on others - they will come by themselves
because its the only thing that makes sense

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:57
[so Hans, $10 EOY still ?]
if btc stays where it is?
hard to achieve i'd say
most probably not
it always takes some time for people to "wake up"
dunno maybe it goes fast
most weak hands are gone in IOTA

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:00
But seriously guys ... the price of course is interesting but if we are able to pull this off, then this will be the start of a new form of society
it will affect everything
the way we interact .... even the way we behave towards each other
I am not even sure if you need to be "rich" in that kind of society
Star trek sounds like a nice vision


Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:20
[once IOTA is completely implemented, its gonna be a matter of energy consumption optimization race I guess?]
ultimately, yes
whatever crypto is going to be the "cheapest" one to "operate" will win

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:22
BUT that is at the same time "expressive" enough to not have "niches" for weird competitors, that claim to be even a "little bit better" in one of the aspects
it needs to be the best possible solution that humans are most probably able to come up with

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:23
if even the smallest something can be improved, then it should become part of the core rather than a competing project
not having miners and being able to "upgrade" whenever it is necessary, is what will give IOTA power
not setting stuff in stone today

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:29
I guess what fascinates me the most about IOTA is that people have a different kind of philosophy - in crypto people are usually sharing the mindset of "let's destroy the banks ... or .... the FED ... or whoever they consider to be their enemy
IOTA for me is not so much about "destroying somebody else" rather than "creating something new"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:30
But the "mindset and motivation" makes all the difference
And I feel like large parts of the community "understand and share" that vision

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:34
there are plenty of "problems" where DLT is not the right answer
but there are most probably also quite a few that we haven't even thought about, yet
that go way beyond just "finance"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:38
[Has IF any plans for anonymous transactions Hans?]
it's current not our main point of research but I would say ultimately yes
the fact thats its feeless make "mixing" funds a very feasible solution
But even on top of that (like zero knowledge proofs and stuff) If there is a use case, then you should be able to do it with IOTA.
that's what I mean with "general purpose DLT" platform
whatever is possible should be doable with the protocol - not "just" IoT value transfers

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:42
everything you could most probably think of
the same way as TCP/IP allows you to play computer games, send emails, or watch streams

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:48
tomorrow I start merging the first ledger-related stuff into the development branch
from the outside it will most probably look like any other day : but starting to work on the "final version" which is supposed to be ready end of Q1 is a big milestone for us
2 months left

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오후 12:04
100% agree - let's finish this shit!
we have "talked" for quite a while - the coming months, we will have to show what we "have"
submitted by btlkhs to Iota [link] [comments]

Monero, the Most Private Cryptocurrency

Monero, the Most Private Cryptocurrency
Written by the CoinEx Institution, this series of jocular and easy to understand articles will show you everything you need to know about major cryptocurrencies, making you fully prepared before jumping into crypto!

https://preview.redd.it/ryvcznqspe451.jpg?width=720&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5fa91e26288d7b0a624113ed21172cc9fd5624a3
Monero, or XMR for short, is an open-source cryptocurrency that is safe, reliable, private, and untraceable. It can run on Windows, Mac, Linux, and FreeBSD, and is known as one of the most private cryptocurrencies. In 2018, Monero already ranked 10th in terms of trading volume, with its market value beyond 1 billion US dollars, an evidence for its great fame in this field.
By a special method in cryptography, Monero ensures that all transactions remain 100% irrelevant and untraceable. Perhaps after reading this article, you will understand why it is so special and popular in the increasingly transparent and traceable cryptocurrency circle (After all privacy comes first!).
In fact, many large cryptocurrencies in the world are not anonymous. All transactions on Bitcoin and Ethereum are made public and traceable, which means that anyone can eavesdrop on transactions flowing into and out of the wallet. That has given rise to a new type of cryptocurrency called “privacy currency”! These “privacy currencies” hide encrypted transactions by adopting specific types of passwords. One typical example is Monero, one of the largest privacy cryptocurrencies in the world.
Monero was created on April 18, 2014 under the name BitMonero, literally the combination of Bit (Bitcoin) and Monero (the “coin” in Esperanto). In five days, the community decided to change its name to Monero.
Interestingly, Monero’s creators valued personal privacy and tried to behave in a low-key manner with pseudonyms instead of the real names. It is said that the Monero major contributor’s nickname is “thankful for today”, yet this guy has gradually disappeared from public view as Monero developed day by day.
Unlike many cryptocurrencies derived from BTC, Monero is based on the CryptoNote protocol. It is also the first branch based on the Bytecoin of CryptoNote currency. Here is some information about Bytecoin: BCN, for short, is a decentralized cryptocurrency with a high degree of privacy; it has open-source codes that allow everyone to contribute to the development of the Bytecoin network; and the Bytecoin network provides global users with instant private transactions that are not traceable and at no additional cost.
Yet, as a branch of BCN, Monero outshines its parent in reputation by being different in two ways. First, Monero’s target block time was reduced from 120 seconds to 60 seconds; second, the issuance speed was cut by 50% (which reverted to 120-second residence later, with the issuance time maintained and the reward for each new block doubled). By the way, during the fork, the Monero developers also found a lot of low-quality codes and then refactored them. (That is exactly what geeks will do)
Monero’s modular code structure was also highly appreciated by Wladimir J. van der Laan, one of the core maintainers of Bitcoin.
Monero values privacy, decentralization and scalability, and there are significant algorithm differences in blockchain fuzzification, which sets it apart from its peers. How private is it? Here are more details.
1. Safe and reliable
For a decentralized cryptocurrency, decentralization means that its network is operated by users; transactions are confirmed by decentralized consensus and then recorded on the blockchain irrevocably. Monero needs no third party to guarantee the safety of funds;
2. Privacy protection
Monero confuses all transaction sources, amounts, and recipients through ring signatures, ring confidential transactions, and invisible addresses. Apart from all the advantages of a decentralized cryptocurrency, it is by no means inferior in safeguarding privacy;
3. Unable to track
The sender, the receiver and the transaction amount of all Monero transactions must be anonymous by default. The information on the Monero Blockchain cannot be matched with physical individuals or specific users, so there is no trace to track;
4. Scalable
Everyone knows that Bitcoin’sability to process transactions has always been limited by the scalability issue; as we have mentioned before in the introduction of Bitcoin, the block size of 1MB makes things difficult. But Monero’s developers have created a system that allows the network to process more transactions when needed; what’s more, Monero does not have any “pre-set” restrictions on block size.
Of course, this also means that some malicious miners may block the system with large blocks. To prevent this from happening, Monero has worked out countermeasures: the block reward penalty of the system.
On October 18, 2018, Monero’s latest hard fork changed the consensus mechanism algorithm to CrypotoNight V8. In this hard fork, it introduced the BulletProff bulletproof protocol, which can also effectively reduce the transaction fee of miners without disclosing transactions
It is said that Monero will issue about 18.4 million XMR in around 8 years. Moreover, it eclipses its counterparts in distribution — with no pre-mining or pre-sale, all block rewards will be left to miners by means of the POW mechanism.
Here is the reward scheme of Monero in two stages:
  1. Acceleration: mine 18132000 XMR before May 2022;
  2. Deceleration: Deceleration starts right after 18132000 XMR are mined, and there will be a reward of 0.6XMR for each block mined afterwards. In this way, the overall supply will be kept on a small scale and decelerated.
Monero is also excellent in its development concept that is designed to be anti-ASIC from the very beginning. Here is a brief introduction to ASIC (Special Application Integrated Circuit).
Due to the specificity of ASICs, specially designed ASICs can usually have much higher hashrate than general CPUs, GPUs, and even FPGAs — that makes hashrate excessively centralized and makes it vulnerable to the monopoly of single centralized institutions. Yet the cryptonight algorithm used by Monero allows most CPUs and even FPGAs to get involved and get mining rewards, instead of making GPU the only one that can efficiently mine.
In other words, Monero’s core development team will modify the consensus mechanism algorithm and have a hard fork after some time to ensure its strength against ASIC and the monopoly of hashrate.
However, although Monero has been designed against ASICs to avoid centralization, nearly 43% of its hashrate is still owned by 3 mining pools; in addition, it is not a BTC-based currency, making it even harder to introduce some elements. Of course, Monero is not that newbie-friendly, and thus has not been widely accepted.
Yet each cryptocurrency has its own features. As long as Monero keeps improving its privacy, it will definitely attract increasing followers. If you are interested in Monero, welcome to CoinEx for exchange or trade.

About CoinEx

As a global and professional cryptocurrency exchange service provider, CoinEx was founded in December 2017 with Bitmain-led investment and has obtained a legal license in Estonia. It is a subsidiary brand of the ViaBTC Group, which owns the fifth largest BTC mining pool, which is also the largest of BCH mining, in the world.
CoinEx supports perpetual contract, spot, margin trading and other derivatives trading, and its service reaches global users in nearly 100 countries/regions with various languages available, such as Chinese, English, Korean and Russian.
Website: https://www.coinex.com/
Twitter: https://twitter.com/coinexcom
Telegram: https://t.me/CoinExOfficialENG
Click here to register on CoinEx!
submitted by CoinEx_Institution to Coinex [link] [comments]

Questions and Answers from OKEx AMA with Tron Black - 2/18/2020

https://twitter.com/OKEx/status/1228212766126661633
The AMA was a huge success! THANK YOU TRON!
If you want to see all the questions that poured in when they opened the AMA up for questions from the audience, here they are: https://pastebin.com/KVpyXmgu The Telegram admins had to temporarily mute the group because there were so many questions flooding in from so many people. A *good problem* to have. :)
Below are all the ANSWERED questions.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
[email protected], [18.02.20 05:09]
Here’s question#1:What is your background and how did you come to the idea to create RVN [email protected]

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:12]
Sorry, I was locked out for minute.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:12]
I'm just a tiny part of Ravencoin, and there are some amazing developers (Jeremy, Mark, Cade, and Corbin) that have been brought the new capabilities to mainnet. The core idea of bringing assets to a bitcoin-derived blockchain platform came from Bruce Fenton, a former Executive Director of the Bitcoin Foundation with life-long experience in the traditional finance and stockbroker world. Medici Ventures is allowing some of its developers to contribute to the project. I was fortunate enough to have the right background to help with this project. I have a CS degree, C++ coding skills, economics background, early entrepreneurial success, teaching experience, an MBA, and a burning passion for the crypto-space and how it can change the world for the better.

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:12]
Thanks. Here's question#2: Why did you name the project Raven? What was Raven created to solve? What is the business model of the project?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:12]
The name came from Bruce Fenton. Ravens are clever birds with a rich history. Ravencoin makes it easy to create and transfer your own asset. There isn’t a business model for the project. It is a gift to the world in the spirit of Bitcoin. Medici Ventures has allowed some of its top developers to contribute time and effort to the project. Medici Ventures does hold some mined RVN, so it may be a win-win.

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:14]
Thank you for answering. Let's move on to the next question# 3. What are the $RVN tokens used for? What gives it value?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:15]
Thank you for asking.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:15]
The RVN tokens are used to purchase your own token on the Ravencoin platform.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:16]
Those RVN are burned.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:16]
RVN is also used to incentivize the miners to secure the chain.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:16]
RVN is also used for transaction fees for tranferring RVN or user-created (your) assets.

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:17]
Cool. Here's question# 4:In your opinion what is the unique "selling" point, or best feature, of Ravencoin?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:17]
This is like being asked "who is your favorite child."

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:18]
Except answering it doesn't cost children thousands in therapy so I'll give it a shot.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:18]
The best feature of Ravencoin, with the most unexpected results, has been its linkage to IPFS.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:19]
This was originally done to ensure that meta-dat about a token doesn't get lost like it has on other platforms like Counterparty.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:19]
The linkage to IPFS has RECENTLY been extended to include messaging, and memos.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:20]
You can now include information, even a PDF, or a video clip with every transaction.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:20]
This is powerful, and I can't wait to see how it gets used.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:20]
--------------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:20]
Quesiton#5 What are the advantages of using Ravencoin for assets tokenization compared to other blockchain protocols?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:21]
Wow. Where do I start?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:21]
First, the meta-data about the token can be recorded via IPFS, so everyone knows what the token represents.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:22]
Second, the token has a unique name which can help with preventing fake tokens, and allows humang readable "root-of-trust" for the token that isn't just 40 characters of hex (ERC-20).

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:22]
There explorers for assets, like: https://ravencoin.asset-explorer.com

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:23]
and https://www.mangofarmassets.com/assetviewer

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:23]
Wallets like RVN Wallet, MangoFarms Wallet, and Zelcore wallet support Ravencoin assets.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:23]
--------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:23]
Here's our next question from Twitter# 6: Does being fully community-driven blockchain have its own drawbacks for rvn? You know, voluntarism means no marketing or legal team.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:24]
Yes, oh yes.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:24]
But the benefits far outweigh the drawbacks.

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:24]
[ Photo ]
📣Group is Off Commenting for a while due to AMA. Will allow back when Q&A session later. Kindly be Patience with us. Thank You🥰

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:24]
It is just technology that people choose to use.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:24]
Ravencoin has attracted the right kinds of people, including donated legal help when it was needed.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:25]
The lack of a marketing budget does slow the awareness.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:25]
In some ways this is good, and the demand for RVN isn't reliant on promotion.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:25]
As other projects stop promotion, or run out of marketing funds, they are at risk.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:26]
Ravencoin is just growing slowly and steadily as more people learn about it.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:26]
Consider yourself fortunate to have learned about Ravencoin early.😁

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:26]
---------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:27]
Great!!! Here's the next question from Twitter# 7:is it apple to apple if I say that ravencoin is going to disrupt wall street just like bitcoin is disrupting to central banking?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:28]
At the very least, Ravencoin will help show the way that tokenization can improve capital formation. It is up to others to take advantage of these new tools, technologies, and features.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:28]
It might happen first in countries other than the U.S.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:29]
Look at the story of Blockbuster Video (former leader in video rental), and Netflix (current video streaming leader) to see what might happen in the future. Is Wall Street the new Blockbuster Video?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:30]
I see similar patterns of arrogance, but only time will tell.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:30]
---------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:30]
Here's the next question# 8: How will Ravencoin defend hashrate distribution (algo question) if there are important securities issued on this platform (double spend attack)?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:31]
Ravencoin doesn't re-org after 60 blocks which helps prevent double-spend attacks -- a feature called NLR.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:31]
Also, something to be aware of is that in most cases tokens are redeemed by an issuer which removes the incentive to double-spend.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:32]
Example: Let's say the token is a share of real-estate. The laws of the jurisdiction for the real-estate would apply when redeeming for dividends, etc.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:33]
Also If the issuer is using the Restricted Assets feature of Ravencoin which have tokens that start with $, then the stolen tokens can be frozen.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:33]
Note: Regular assets (not starting with $) can't be frozen.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:33]
The issuer of the token should specify how redemption is handled.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:33]
--------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:34]
Thank you for your detailed answer. and Quesiton#9 How does RVN works? What problem did RVN solve? How do the Tokenomics work?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:34]
RVN works like BTC, because it is a code fork of BTC.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:34]
RVN lets you create your own tokens in under a minute. It is easy!!!

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:34]
RVN is required to create your own token.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:35]
Heres' the breakdown:

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:35]
500 RVN burned to create a root asset with a unique name. 100 RVN is burned to create a sub-asset (under a root asset). 5 RVN is burned to create a unique asset (NFT). 1000 RVN burned to be a qualifier. 1500 RVN burned to create a Restricted Asset with special superpowers. 0.1 RVN burned to attach a tag to a Ravencoin address. A small amount of RVN is used, but not burned to transfer assets.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:35]
------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:35]
Let's move on to the next question#10 Safety and security are always the most important things. So what is the security mechanism of RavenCoin to ensure user assets do not become the target of hackers?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:36]
Ravencoin has a strong network of miners.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:36]
Most of the original code is from Bitcoin which is probably the most vetted code in the world.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:36]
We have run a bug bounty to hopefully find any flaws before release to mainnet.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:36]
With all that said, there are no guarantees as this is just source code provided for free that folks choose to run.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:37]
If you need absolute assurance, then you should commission an audit of the code. There is no Ravencoin company, just a GitHub repository and a lot of passionate supporters.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:37]
-------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:37]
Quesiton#11 Nowaday most investors $RVN simply focus on the price of the token in the short term, and not on the real value of the project. Can you tell us about the motivation and advantages of an investor $RVN in the long term?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:38]
I can't speak to the motivations of individual investors.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:38]
RVN is a great token with good liquidity (world-wide).

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:38]
RVN is used to incentivize the miners and help protect the Ravencoin asset platform, so it has a use case.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:39]
RVN can be a store-of-value, and a medium-of-exchange.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:39]
One of my favorite things about Ravencoin is that it is tricky to classify, as it has so many uses.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:39]
I love seeing how people build using this technology platform.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:39]
Ravencoin makes new things possible.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:39]
--------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:40]
Here's the next question #12 Who are your competitors and how do you intend to thrive amongst them?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:40]
This may sound strange, but I don't see crypto technologies as competitors.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:41]
The crypto space is tiny compared to the legacy systems we've had for fifty years, so I look at every project as a way to bring new people into crypto-ecosystem.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:41]
If we add value, features, and capabilities, then more people will learn about the Ravencoin platform and what it can do for them.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:41]
The ERC-20 smart contract is an alternative asset issuance option, but Ravencoin is much better for most uses, so more education is needed.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:41]
https://medium.com/@tronblack/ravencoin-better-than-erc-20-88a276d3e434

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:41]
--------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:42]
Quesiton#13 What is the uniqueness of the Raven token? Why should investors (including me) invest in Raven?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:42]
Ravencoin is a platform.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:42]
You should evaluate the capabilities of the Ravencoin platform and ask yourself whether it will be used, and whether it adds value over other platforms like ETH, EOS, or TEZOS.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:42]
Hint: It does. I try not to provide investment advice, so do your own research.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:43]
https://ravencoin.org

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:43]
https://medium.com/@tronblack

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:43]
---------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:43]
Quesiton#14 What your plans in place for global expansion, are you focusing on only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships? Can you explain this?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:43]
Ravencoin is already a global phenomenon.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:44]
South Korea has been onto Ravencoin for some time now, and I had the opportunity to speak at a South Korean Ravencoin meetup that filled an Art Hall with a waiting list.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:44]
Because of OKEx, that awareness will expand to China.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:44]
Our focus is building and education about Ravencoin.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:44]
There is no marketing budget, and we raised no funds.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:45]
The success so far has been completely organic, and Ravencoin has the best community of any coin, anywhere.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:45]
------------

[email protected], [18.02.20 05:45]
Here is THE LAST question#10 from Twitter before we accept questions from the Telegram chat. what are your hopes with the $RVN listing on u/OKEx Okex going forward?

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:45]
I hope the OKEx $RVN listing brings awareness of Ravencoin to new parts of the world.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:46]
The project is more capable than most people know, and because it was launched without raising any funds, there isn't a marketing budget.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:46]
It is up to smart individuals, like yourselves, to figure out what Ravencoin can do, and use the technology to make new companies and new projects.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:46]
------------------


+++++++++++++++++++++

Tron Black, [18.02.20 05:57]
>>> When is mainnet launch?
January 3, 2018

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:01]
>>> A project's Technical development may not always be reflected on the price of it's token. What is raven doing specifically to increase price of its token?
I agree. And I think it is especially true in the case of Ravencoin. The true value may not be reflected in the short-term. The Ravencoin project isn't a company. It will take time. There isn't a marketing dept or budget, but through events like these, and podcasts, and blogs, and new projects building on top of Ravencoin, I think the value will eventually be reflected.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:06]
>>>> Give me some important reasons why we need to buy RVN token where in fact hundreds of project failed and it went to bankruptcy or even developers run when they collect millions/billions of funds…? Can you explain it to us

Many got burned during the crazy ICO phase of 2017. Ravencoin did not participate. Ravencoin is technology and a passionate community. If I get hit by a bus tomorrow (heaven forbid), the project will continue because it is free, open-source and anyone can carry it on, or contribute, or use it, or copy it. Ravencoin can't go to bankruptcy. It is code, and it doesn't borrow, or or have debt. Some of the core develoepers, myself included, are allowed to work on the project while working for Medici Ventures. This is a great arrangement.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:06]
-----------------

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:10]
>>>> How does RAVENCOIN evaluate the importance of the user community? In the near future, does RAVEN have any special plans to attract and expand the community ?

The Ravencoin community is the most important and valuable part of the project. There are already clones of the code, but not of the passionate, helpful, and dedicated community. We invite you to become a part of it, and help expand it in Asia.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:10]
--------------------

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:13]
>>>>. RVN is regulatory compliant project for assets tokenization in U.S. Meaning that the assets issued in RVN protocol is fine with the U.S authorities.

Ravencoin provides features that help U.S. issuers stay legal under the existing U.S. rules. I've written about how this can be done, but I would always recommend having your plans reviewed by a competent attorney. The U.S. rules are complex, and from a different era.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:13]
---------------
Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:18]
>>>> Ravencoin is constantly finding new big partners.Audience is constantly growing.What’s the secret to this growth rate?

A vibrant, and welcoming community. Technology that solves real tokenization problems. Easy-to-use, so anyone can participate. Not launching as an ICO, so it is fair for everyone.

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:18]
--------------

Tron Black, [18.02.20 06:20]
Thank you everyone for the fantastic questions. I would like to answer every one of them, but it is after 4am and I should get some sleep. I really appreciate all the participation, and I hope your trading on OKEx goes very well for all of you!!!
submitted by __pathfinder__ to Ravencoin [link] [comments]

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